An Investigation of School Leadership Effectiveness at Secondary Level in District Sargodha

Muhammad Zafar Iqbal, Khizar Hayat & Jahan Ara Shams


The major objective of this study was to investigate the school leadership effectiveness at the secondary level in the district of Sargodha. A survey research design was used to investigate the phenomenon. The population of the study was the school heads of government secondary schools of Tehsil, Sargodha. The sample was comprised of one hundred and sixty heads of government secondary schools in Tehsil, Sargodha. The data were collected through a questionnaire developed by the researchers. The validity of the instrument was done through expert opinion from three professors. The inter-reliability of the questionnaire was measured by using Cronbach Alpha. The value of the reliability coefficient was found to be 0.863. The instrument was developed on the basis of the Alpha Leadership Model which has three aspects- anticipation, alignment, and action. It consisted of thirty statements. Mean, Standard Deviation, and independent sample t- test were applied to analyze the data. A significant difference was found between female and male school leaders in their school leadership effectiveness. The male school leaders appeared stronger than female school leaders in their school leadership effectiveness. No difference was found between urban and rural school heads’ leadership effectiveness. It was suggested that yearly training workshops may be arranged for female heads to further develop their leadership skills.